What is diabetes?
Also called diabetes mellitus, is a chronic (long-term) health condition that affects the way your body converts food into energy.
Your body breaks down most of the food you eat into sugar (glucose) and releases it into your bloodstream. When your blood sugar level rises, it tells your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin acts like a key to allow blood sugar to enter your body’s cells to use for energy.
With diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it as well as it should. When there is not enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in the bloodstream. Over time, that can cause serious health problems like heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
There is no cure for diabetes yet, but losing weight, eating healthy foods, and staying active can really help. Other things you can do to help:
- Take the medication as prescribed.
- Get diabetes self-management education and support.
- Make and keep health care appointments.
What are the types of diabetes?
There are three main types of diabetes: prediabetes, type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy).
Type 1 diabetes is when there is destruction of pancreatic β cells with absolute insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes and there is progressive loss of insulin secretion usually accompanied by insulin resistance.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
There are also other types of diabetes that can be caused by other types of factors such as MODY, cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, drug-induced diabetes.
What are the first signs of being diabetic?
If you have any of the following symptoms of diabetes, see your doctor for a blood sugar test:
- Urinating (peeing) a lot, often at night.
- You’re very thirsty
- Lose weight without trying
- They are very hungry
- Have blurred vision
- Have numb or tingling hands or feet
- Feeling very tired
- Have very dry skin
- You have sores that heal slowly.
- You have more infections than usual
Why does diabetes make you thirsty?
When you have diabetes, your kidneys are forced to work much harder to filter and absorb excess glucose. There comes a time when glucose exceeds the filtering capacity of the kidneys and they cannot keep up, secreting glucose, in turn dragging fluid from the tissues, which dehydrates and this generally causes thirst.
Why diabetes cause kidney failure?
The kidneys are made up of millions of small filters called nephrons, which are responsible for filtering waste and excess water from the blood. When the level of sugar is high in the blood and the kidneys cannot keep up with the rate of filtering it, this begins to “ferment” by an oxidation process and over time damages the filters and blood vessels of the kidneys, making them stop working as waste begins to accumulate in the body.
The kidneys also help control blood pressure and make the hormones the body needs to stay healthy.
Diabetes diagnosis criteria
Criteria according to the American Diabetes Association:
|Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL (having had no caloric intake in the last 8 hours).
|2-hour plasma glucose of ≥200 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test. The test should be performed with a load of 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
|Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) ≥ 6.5%. This test must be performed in laboratories certified according to the A1C standards of the DCCT*.
|Patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis with a random glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reports that using a cut-off point of A1C ≥ 6.5% is able to detect up to a third more patients with undiagnosed diabetes
than just a fasting glucose test ≥ 126 mg/dL. Age, race/ethnicity, and the presence of anemia or a hemoglobinopathy are important to consider when using the A1C to diagnose diabetes.
Epidemiological studies have so far shown that A1C is only useful for adults, however, recently the ADA committee concluded that A1C, random glucose, or glucose tolerance curve can be used for both the diagnosis of prediabetes such as type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.
The plasma glucose level for the diagnosis of diabetes will be used as the only diagnostic tool in patients with sickle cell anemia, pregnancy (second, third trimester and postpartum period), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, HIV, hemodialysis, transfusion recent, recent blood loss, or recent administration of erythropoietin.
The A1C can be evaluated according to the condition with the help of a list that can be found on the page www.ngsp.org/interf.asp.
What is the main cause of diabetes?
To understand diabetes, it is important to understand how the body normally uses glucose.
how insulin works
Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland behind and below the stomach (pancreas).
- The pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream.
- Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter cells.
- Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
- As the blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.
The role of glucose
Glucose, a sugar, is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.
- Glucose comes from two main sources: food and the liver.
- The sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
- The liver stores and produces glucose.
- When glucose levels are low, such as when you haven’t eaten in a long time, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose. This keeps your glucose level within a typical range.
The exact cause of most types of diabetes is unknown. In all cases, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream. This is because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
Prediabetes is when you have high blood sugar levels (between 100 and 125 mg/dl) but they are not high enough to become type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms of Prediabetes
You can have prediabetes and not know it since this condition does not necessarily have to manifest any symptoms that indicate its presence.
The best way to detect it would be to have a blood test to measure your blood glucose level.
Here’s how to detect if you have prediabetes:
- The test that measures your blood sugar level must be done on an empty stomach and if the value is between 100 and 125 mg/dl you may have prediabetes.
- Measure your sugar 2 hours after eating, if the values show a range between 140 and 199 mg/dl you may have prediabetes. This measurement is called a Postprandial Glucose measurement.
- If you have a VO glucose load test done in a laboratory and after 2 hours your glucose level measures or is between 140 and 199 mg/dL, you may have prediabetes.
- If you have a glycosylated hemoglobin between 5.7% and 6.4% mg/dl you may have prediabetes.
Note that at the end of these points we say “you can have”, because in science there can always be another pathology that can trigger your blood sugar level.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
- Feeling thirstier than usual.
- urinate a lot
- Bedwetting in children who have never wet the bed at night.
- Feeling very hungry.
- Lose weight without trying.
- Feeling irritable or having other mood swings.
- Feeling tired and weak.
- Have blurred vision.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can live with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include:
- More thirsty. When sugar builds up in the blood, the kidneys work overtime to remove it. This draws fluids from your tissues and dehydrates you, making you feel thirsty.
- More hungry. Because diabetes can prevent glucose from reaching your cells, you feel hungry, even after you’ve eaten.
- Urinate often. You will urinate more because your kidneys are working to remove excess sugar from your system.
- Dry mouth. Dehydration and urinating a lot can also drain moisture from your mouth.
- Weight loss without trying. When you lose sugar from urinating a lot, you also lose calories. You may lose weight even though you are eating as usual.
- Fatigue. When your body can’t use energy from food, you may feel weak and tired. Dehydration can also make you feel this way.
- Blurry vision. High blood sugar can make it hard for you to concentrate.
- Headaches. High blood sugar levels can make your head hurt.
- Loss of consciousness. After exercising, skipping a meal, or taking too many medicines, your blood sugar level may drop too low and you may pass out.
- Infections or sores that do not heal. High blood sugar can decrease blood flow and make it harder for your body to recover.
- Tingling in hands and feet. Type 2 diabetes can affect the nerves in the hands and feet.
- Red, swollen and sensitive gums. You are more likely to get infections in your gums and in the bones that hold your teeth in place. Your gums can become infected or loosen from your teeth. Your teeth may become loose.
Symptoms of Gestational Diabetes
Most pregnant women do not experience signs or symptoms of gestational diabetes. In fact, the only way to know is with a blood sugar test, which is usually done around 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.
Some women may notice subtle signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes, including:
- Increased thirst. Drinking more than normal and feeling like you’re always thirsty can be a sign of gestational diabetes.
- Fatigue. Pregnant women are tired, after all, it is a lot of work to grow and maintain a baby! However, gestational diabetes can make you feel even more tired than usual.
- Dry mouth. A dry mouth, despite heavy drinking, can be another sign of gestational diabetes.
What diabetes is worse?
The main thing to remember is that both are just as serious as the other.
Type 1 diabetes is considered worse than type 2 because it is an autoimmune disease, so there is no cure. It is estimated that the life expectancy of people with type 2 diabetes can be reduced by up to 10 years, while type 1 diabetes can reduce life expectancy by 20 years or more.
Taking insulin or other diabetes medications is often part of diabetes treatment. In addition to making healthy food and drink choices, being physically active, getting enough sleep, and managing stress, medications can help you manage the disease. Some other treatment options are also available.
Is diabetes curable?
People with diabetes and their loved ones understandably yearn for a cure for this disease. However, at the present time, there is no known cure for diabetes.
Medical and scientific research continues in search of a definitive solution for diabetes. Clinical trials and studies are underway to better understand the mechanisms behind the disease and to develop more effective treatments. However, it’s important to have realistic expectations and understand that finding a cure can take time.
Do you suffer or know someone who suffers from this disease?
We are currently offering clinical trials to test new diabetes medications and treatments; With these, we want to achieve advances in the treatment of this disease and improve the quality of life of those who suffer from it, as well as one day find a cure.
You will be given medication, followed up, and paid for your time and travel 👇
Best breakfasts for diabetics
The number one good food is eggs. When you eat eggs you get all the amino acids and all the fatty acids your body needs. Eggs are the closest thing to a superfood or multivitamin that you can have for breakfast and you will have almost no movement in your blood sugar level.
In second place we have the avocado which has 500 milligrams of potassium per 100-gram portion. It also has 8 grams of carbohydrates per 100-gram serving. Full of vitamins and minerals, great potassium content.
As number 3 we have bacon, which provides essential amino acids and fatty acids such as omega-3 that your body needs.
In fourth position we have is the steak, they also provide essential amino acids as well as essential fatty acids and tons of vitamins and minerals.
Number 5 a good breakfast for diabetics is a Greek yogurt with nuts, this will give you the amino acids you need, the fatty acids you need as well as vitamins and minerals, it is not the perfect food but quite good if you need variety as a diabetic
Worst breakfasts for diabetics
The number 1 bad food is oatmeal. Oatmeal, made up of carbohydrates and all carbohydrates, breaks down into glucose and fructose, increasing blood sugar levels and accumulating fat in your liver, both very bad things for diabetics. There is no vitamin or mineral content in oats and to make it tasty usually sugar or honey are added to help increase blood sugar even more.
In the number 2 position as the bad food for diabetics is the banana. The banana has 350 milligrams of potassium per 100 grams and has 22 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams, that will raise your sugar level while the avocado will not.
At number 3 we have the English muffin, made from wheat which is 100% carbohydrates breaking down into glucose and fructose raising your blood sugar and putting fat in your liver. There is no nutrition information on this food. Please don’t eat that.
Bad food number 4 is muesli with berries; muesli is basically raw oats. This food breaks down 100% into glucose and fructose.
The worst breakfast food for diabetics is cereal with skim milk; Any cereal that comes in a box is a terrible diabetic food. They are ultra-processed and ground grains that, together with milk, break down into glucose, fructose and galactose.